Dating the time of origin of major clades

In 2007, evidence of the earliest human of occupation Germany was discovered in the form of a 35,000 year old figurine of a mammoth.By 25,000 years ago, the Last Glacial Maximum rendered much of Europe uninhabitable; people took refuge in Iberia, the Balkans, the Ukraine and Italy.

During the Upper Palaeolithic humans may have looked quite different from their descendants today; nevertheless, a selection of modern male faces and their common Y-chromosome haplogroups provide a speculative look.

It arose in descendants of Haplogroup IJ men arriving from the Middle East; IJ is up to 40,000 years old, suggesting that IJ colonists formed the first wave into Europe and the now dominant Haplogroup R1 arrived later.

The greatest density of Haplogoup I today is to be found in Bosnia (54%) and Herzegovina (71%).

Their ancestors are thought to have arrived in the islands 55,000 years ago from coastal India as part of the first wave of modern human expansion out of Africa.

The geographical position of the Malay Peninsula made it a main thoroughfare on the first wave of migration south.

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The theories about how anatomically modern humans populated the world are hotly-debated.

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